III.

Germans in Korean service


Ahrendts, F. L.
1898 to 1901 deputy head of the Korean customs office in Wonsan.


Arnous, H. G.
Came to Korea as an employee of Paul Georg von Möllendorff in the spring of 1883. From probably late 1888 to early 1900, he was initially a customs officer in Pusan and from 1st April 1900 to 1903 he served as deputy head of the customs office in Masanp'o.


Bielert, J.
From 1901 to 1902, first as a customs inspector in Chemulpo, then in 1903 in Mokpo.


Bolljahn, Albert K. W.
Younger brother of Johannes Bolljahn. From 1900 to 1908 employed at the Korean customs office in Pusan as assistant to the customs director.


Bolljahn, Johannes
Head of the German language school, which was founded in Seoul on 15th September 1898. After the school closed at the beginning of 1911, Bolljahn earned his living to some extent with private lessons and finally returned to Germany in 1920.


Brinckmeier, Robert Hans Carl       (See also category: "Diplomats within Korea")
First between 1886 and 1888 as an officer on Korean steamers, Brinckmeier served as a customs inspector in Chemulpo from 1888 until probably early in 1897.


Claassen, H.       (See also category: "Diplomats within Korea")
Came to Korea in the wake of von Möllendorff in the spring of 1883 or a short time later to initially work in the Korean customs service. After Möllendorff left the Korean service, another four Germans were also released from their duties. Claassen is one of them, but in mid-1886 took up the post of guard for the German consulate in Korea.


Diedricht, Claus
Mechanical engineer, came to Korea in April 1885 to build a new Korean mint together with Friedrich Kraus and C. Riedt on behalf of the government. The work ended in 1887.


Eckert, Franz
Prussian Military Bandleader, was engaged by the imperial Korean government at the end of 1900 and arrived on 19th February 1901 as court conductor in Seoul, where he worked successfully until his death in 1916.


Grundmann, W.
Assistant to the customs commissioner in Wonsan from 1892 to 1894. Otto Ehlers met him there on his journey through Korea at the end of October 1892.


Helm, Julius
In April 1885, Paul Georg von Möllendorff brought the German farmer Julius Helm from Japan to Korea. He was supposed to introduce agricultural techniques in Korea using modern equipment and a larger crop based on the German system. The project failed, however, and Helm returned to Japan in the fall of 1885.


Henschel, Otto F. E.      (See also category: "Businessmen & Engineers")
From 1901 to 1908: pilot and customs auditor in Pusan.
From 1908 to 1915 Henschel worked for Carl Wolter & Co. in Pusan as well as in Chemulpo.


Hintze, Julius F.
From 1888 to 1893, Hintze initially worked as a customs inspector in Wonsan and then as a port customs officer until 1896 in Chemulpo. He died in Korea and is buried in the foreigners' cemetery in Seoul.


Holz, J. C. A.
A customs inspector in Pusan, traceable in the years 1889 to 1896. Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg met him there on his trip through Korea in the summer of 1894.


Kniffler
Probably a relative of the boss of the German company Louis Kniffler & Co. from Nagasaki, Japan. Kniffler was brought to Korea by Paul Georg von Möllendorff in 1884 in order to enlarge the country's tobacco culture for export to East Asian countries on behalf of the Korean government. However, the project was abandoned a short time later. Kniffler returned to Japan in 1885.


Kofoed, N. C.
One of the first employees of Paul Georg von Möllendorff, who helped in the initial phase to set up the customs system in Korea. From mid-1883 to 1886 Kofoed worked as deputy harbor master in Wonsan.


Kraus, Friedrich
Arrived in Chemulpo with his family on 8th November 1885 and took over from Paul Georg von Möllendorff the management of the new Korean mint, which he was to build on behalf of the government together with Claus Diedricht and C. Riedt. The work ended in 1887. On 22nd April 1888, Kraus returned home to Germany.


Krebs (Krebbs), C.
Assistant to the Customs Commissioner in Chemulpo in mid-1883 and in Pusan in 1885.


Kroebel, Emma
In 1905, briefly took over the role of Mistress of Court Ceremonies at the Korean Imperial Court from Miss Antoinette Sontag.


Ladage, Amandus
As one of the pioneers in the customs service in Chemulpo, Ladage worked since 1883 as a customs auditor. Three years later he died in Chemulpo at the young age of 33.


Laucht, H. W.
Came to Korea with von Möllendorff in the spring of 1883 and worked until 1884 as a customs inspector in the port office of Wonsan and from 1885 to 1887 in Pusan.


Lindholm, K. H. von
From 1894 to 1896, Lindholm worked as an assistant to the Customs Commissioner in Pusan.


Lührss, G. F. W.
Harbor master in Chemulpo, presumably during the years 1891 and 1892.


Maasberg, C. A.
Employee in the Korean Customs Administration. From 1898 to 1907 worked in various functions in Pusan, Masanp'o, Mokpo and Chinnamp'o.


Maertens, August H.
At the beginning of 1884, Paul Georg von Möllendorff brought the Shanghai-based German silk culture expert to Korea so that he could set up a "Foreign Silk Company" on a large scale. In the same year Maertens was appointed director of the "Korean Silk Association" and held this post until 6th May 1891.


Mannheimer, P. E.
From the end of 1884 to 1901, initially as a customs inspector, from 1902 to 1910 as head of the customs department in Wonsan. With more than 25 years of service, Mannheimer is the longest serving German employee in the Korean sea customs service.


Meyer, C. A.
From 1893 to 1899, deputy head of the customs department and harbor master in Chemulpo.


Möllendorff, Paul Georg von  [Mok In-deok - 穆麟德]
In 1882, King Gojong asked Lee Hung-chang, probably the most important Chinese statesman of the time, for an adviser on foreign affairs. In mid-November 1882, Möllendorff, who had been in Lee's service since July 1882, was officially awarded this position. In addition to his advisory role, Möllendorff was to set up a customs system in Korea based on the Chinese model.
After the contract was signed on 18th November, Möllendorff first set foot on Korean soil on 8th December 1882, becoming the first European to be officially invited by Korea to serve in the country. He held the rank of "champan" within the Korean government (參判, second-degree official, comparable to the position of deputy minister), was the general customs inspector who organized Korean customs and was involved in the contracts of foreign nations with Korea in an advisory capacity. On 14th March 1884, he also became the director of the new mint, from 24th April to 13th June 1884, he was named Vice Minister of the Ministry of Labor and from 15th December 1884 to 6th February 1885, Vice Minister of the Ministry of War.
During his work in Korea, Möllendorff endeavors to organize other innovations in both the technical and social fields in addition to customs. For these purposes, he brings a number of merchants, engineers and scientists to Korea. Negotiations with Russia over military instructors for Korea eventually brought him down due to intriguing foreign powers. Möllendorff was removed from all posts and traveled back to China on 5th December 1885.


Mörsel, Ferdinand Heinrich      (See also categpry: "Businessmen & engineers")
Came to Korea in June 1883 and initially acted as a pilot and boat operator with the rank of a captain. From 1887 to 1891, Moersel acted as deputy head of the customs department and as a harbor master in Chemulpo.


Prahl, J.
In 1898, Prahl worked as a customs inspector in Chemulpo.


Reimers, W.
In 1903, Reimers worked as a customs inspector in Pusan.


Riedt, C.
Chemist, came to Korea in April 1885 to work with Friedrich Kraus and Claus Diedricht to commission a new mint. The work ended in 1887, but unlike Diedricht and Kraus, Riedt extended his contract and did not return to Germany until 1889.


Rosenbaum, S.
Assistant to the customs commissioner in Wonsan from 1883 to 1886.


Schmidt, W.
Since the end of 1883 as customs auditor in Wonsan and from 1885 to 1886 as acting port master and customs inspector in Pusan.


Schoenicke, J. F.
On 4th June 1886, Schoenicke began his service as head of the customs office in Chemulpo. From 11th November 1889 to 11th November 1892, he served as Chief Customs Director of the Korean Customs Office in Seoul.


Schulze, F. W.       (See also category: "Crew of civilian ships")
Came to Korea in the spring of 1883 together with Paul Georg von Möllendorff and was employed as a harbor master at Chemulpo until 1885.


Sontag, Marie Antoinette
A distant relative of the Russian Minister Resident Carl Iwanowitsch Waeber from Alsace. Miss Sontag came to Korea on 3rd October 1885 to initially manage Mr. von Waeber's household. After King Gojong's flight to the Russian embassy in October 1895, he learned to appreciate the care of Miss Sontag so much that he made her a court ceremonial master a year later. In addition to her work in the palace, she also ran a guest house, which later became known as the "Sontag Hotel". Antoinette Sontag left Korea on 24th September 1909 and returned to Europe.


Wunsch, Richard Carl Franz Georg
From November 1901 to April 1905, Wunsch served as a court physician to Emperor Gojong in Seoul.